How to Detect Down Syndrome During Pregnancy

Many prospective parents who worry if their baby had Down syndrome or some other abnormal chromosome conditions. The test can help determine the possibility of babies have this condition. The result could help you decide whether to undergo invasive diagnostic tests to know for sure about the baby's condition. The test can tell you how the baby may have this condition, but only diagnostic tests such as amniocentesis that tell whether the baby actually has the condition. Screening tests do not give a dangerous risk to mother and baby, but the diagnostic tests have a small risk of miscarriage, though.

How to Detect Down Syndrome During Pregnancy

Chromosome Abnormalities in Baby with Down Syndrome

Chromosomes are thread-like structures in each cell that carry genes. Most people have 46 chromosomes in each cell, with one set of 23 comes from the mother's egg cell and the other set from the father's sperm. Biological errors can occur during the early stages of cell division, causing abnormalities of the chromosomes. For example, some of the developing baby with 47 chromosomes. Not with 23 pairs of chromosomes, they have 22 pairs plus a set consisting of three chromosomes, chromosome abnormal condition is called trisomy.

Often, pregnant women expecting a baby with abnormal chromosome number miscarried, which usually occurs early in pregnancy. But with some conditions specific abnormal chromosome, the baby survived and was born with developmental problems and birth defects ranging from mild to severe.

Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, occurs when a baby has an extra copy of chromosome 21 in some or all cells. Down syndrome is the most common abnormal condition in infants that can be taken at birth. Other chromosomal problems, the baby could be born with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13. This abnormal condition is almost always associated with mental retardation and other congenital malformations. If they survive until birth, these infants rarely live for more than a few months, there are some babies who survive for several years.

Anyone can have a baby with a chromosomal condition that is abnormal, but the risk increases with maternal age. For example, chances are you having a baby who suffered from Down syndrome increased from about 1 to 1040 at the age of 25 years into one appeal 75 at age 40.

A chromosomal problem can not be corrected or treated. If the baby is diagnosed with one of them, you can prepare a baby with certain developmental problems or not continue the pregnancy. Down syndrome diagnostic tests also have drawbacks. These diagnostic tests do not catch all cases of Down syndrome, so it could be your baby identified as having a low risk when he is actually experiencing Down syndrome. Instead, the test results can show your baby has a higher risk when she is fine. It makes you feel worried about the actual condition of the baby is fine.

There are many variations of the test approaches that can be served. Several tests were performed in the first trimester, and a few others in the second trimester. Tests include blood tests, ultrasound, or ideally, a combination of both. Different tests have different detection ranges as well. The range of detection tells you how good a test to identify infants who actually are at higher risk.

The following tests can be done to detect Down syndrome in the fetus:

1. Screening Test

Screening tests using blood samples and ultrasound measurements to assess the possibility of a baby has a chromosomal problem, including Down syndrome. These tests are invasive (meaning, in this case, do not do income needle into the uterus, so no risk to you or the baby).

Screening tests can tell if your baby is actually suffering from Down syndrome. In addition, this test also gives a ratio that expresses the possibility of the baby has a problem, based on test results and your age. This information can help you decide whether to continue to undergo diagnostic tests.

2. Diagnostic Test

Diagnostic tests such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis can tell by more than 99 percent accuracy whether the baby has abnormal chromosomes. This test can identify several hundred genetic disorders by analyzing the genetics of a collection of cells in the placenta. But both of these tests give even a small risk of miscarriage.

3. Nuchal Translucency (NT) Test

Examination in the first trimester includes blood tests to measure levels of two proteins in the blood and a special ultrasound called nuchal translucency (NT) test. Blood tests in the first trimester to measure two proteins produced by the placenta, the Beta-hCG, and PAPP-A. Pregnant containing a baby with Down syndrome are more likely to have abnormal levels of these two proteins in the blood. Blood tests can be done from week 9 until the end of week 13.

Nuchal translucency (NT) test measures the clear space on the network behind the baby's neck. Baby with abnormal chromosome conditions tends to accumulate more fluid at the back of the neck during the first trimester, causing this clear space becomes more widespread. Nuchal translucency (NT) test can only be done between week 11 until the end of week 13 of pregnancy. Because this test requires expertise and special equipment, these facilities may not be available in many smaller-scale health institutions.

4. First-Trimester Combined Screening

Together, these tests are known by first-trimester combined screening. This test identifies high risk of about 79 to 90 percent of infants with Down syndrome. This means that up to 21 percent of babies with Down syndrome can not be identified through this test. The advantage of the test in the first trimester is that you know the risks in infants associated with abnormal chromosomal problems early in pregnancy. If the risk is low, the result will give you peace. When the stakes are high, you have the opportunity to undergo CVS, which will tell you if your baby has a problem when they were in the first trimester. CVS is usually performed after 13 weeks, so it's best if you finish first-trimester screening sooner rather than later.

5. Multiple Marker or The Quadruple Screen

In the second trimester tests involving blood tests, commonly called the multiple marker or the quadruple screen. This test is usually performed at weeks 15 and 18. The tests measure levels of four chemicals in the blood, namely AFP, hCG, uE3, and inhibin A. Having abnormal levels of these four elements in the blood are associated with increased likelihood of babies have Down syndrome. This test is able to detect 80 percent of babies with Down syndrome.

6. Cell-Free Fetal DNA Test

Some institutions now provide a cell-free fetal DNA test, a blood test that can detect Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities conditions at 10 weeks gestation or later. If the test indicates a problem, CVS or amniocentesis is still recommended to obtain a definitive diagnosis.

7. Integrated Screening

The test in the second trimester is generally offered in conjunction with first-trimester screening as an integrated or sequential screening. Integrated and sequential screening involve screening test in the first and second trimester. Integrated screening to see the results of a blood test in the first trimester, nuchal translucency (NT) test, and the quadruple screen from the second trimester. Integrated screening detects 90 to 96 percent of cases of Down syndrome and is the most accurate method ever. Unfortunately, you can not get the results until the second trimester.

Urinary Tract Infection During Pregnancy

When hearing the term "urinary tract infection," you probably immediately think about the infection in the bladder and the accompanying symptoms, such as frequent urge to urinate and a burning sensation when you do. The condition is also called cystitis, commonly experienced by women who are sexually active between the ages of 20 to 50 years, but not for the entire urinary tract infections.

Urinary Tract Infection During Pregnancy

You could be a urinary tract infection in any part of the urinary tract, which began in the kidney, where urine is produced, continue to tubes called ureters below the bladder, where urine is gathered until you urinate, and ends in the urethra, small channels that carry urine out of the body.

Causes of Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections are generally caused by bacteria from the skin, vagina, or rectum into the urethra and spread to other parts. Often, the bacteria suspended in the bladder and breed there, causing inflammation and trigger symptoms appear. But bacteria can also be spread from the bladder to the ureter, to infect one or two kidneys. Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) become a serious medical complications are most common during pregnancy. The infection can spread to the bloodstream and threaten your safety.

Effect of Urinary Tract Infection On Fetus

Kidney infection also has an impact on your baby bladder, which increases the risk of premature birth, babies are born with low weight, and is also associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. You can have the bacteria in the urinary tract but did not show any symptoms, known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. When not in a state of pregnancy, asymptomatic bacteriuria usually does not cause problems and often goes away by itself. But during pregnancy, asymptomatic bacteriuria is left without treatment will increase the risk of kidney infection and premature birth, as well as the risk of low weight babies. It is one of the reasons your urine should be checked regularly during pregnancy.

It is not known for sure whether pregnancy increases your risk of cystitis or not. However, there are a number of studies that show that pregnancy does not lead to a higher risk of the emergence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, but pregnancy can increase your risk of kidney infection. The cause is the hormone progesterone level higher to lower muscle tone ureter (the tube between the kidney and bladder), resulting in dilation of the uterus and slow down the flow of urine. Plus, the enlarging uterus can press the ureter, making it more difficult urine flow quickly as usual.

Also, bladder changes during pregnancy. You will find it difficult to completely empty it, and your bladder becomes more prone to reflux, a condition in which urine flows back into the ureters to the kidneys. This change makes the urine takes longer to pass through the urinary tract, allowing the bacteria to proliferate, but also the bacteria will become easier to spread to the kidneys. Moreover, during pregnancy urine less acidic and contain more glucose, both of these things increase the potential for bacterial growth.

Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnant Women

Symptoms of urinary tract infection (cystitis) vary from each pregnant woman, but generally, symptoms may include:
  • Discomfort in the pelvic region or pain in the lower abdomen.
  • The pain, discomfort, or burning when urinating and possibly during sexual intercourse.
  • The urge to urinate frequently or not controlled, although there is little urine in the bladder.

You can also find urine smelling unusual and looks dark. You can find blood in it too. You may also experience low-grade fever, but more often than not, your body temperature will remain normal. Actually, it is difficult to know for sure whether you have a urinary tract infection during pregnancy, especially if symptoms are mild. If you think you have an infection, be sure to contact your doctor so that your urine can be tested.

Handling Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnant Women

If you show a sign of possible kidney infection, you need to get immediate medical attention. Symptoms are generally often occurring include:
  • High fever with shaking and sweating.
  • Pain in the lower back or side below the ribs, on one or both sides, and perhaps also on the belly.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • You have blood or pus in the urine and also experience some symptoms of cystitis.

As mentioned earlier, asymptomatic bacteriuria can cause premature birth and low birth weight. If left untreated, it is likely you are to experience kidney infections could increase to 40 percent. But with proper treatment, the risk can be decreased dramatically to between 1 to 4 percent.

To find out if there are bacteria in the urinary tract, the doctor will ask for a urine sample at the first prenatal visit and sent to the lab for examination, he also will ask if you are experiencing symptoms or not. If the result is negative, there is a small chance you experience a urinary tract infection at a later date. If the test result is positive, you will be treated with oral antibiotics is safe to drink during pregnancy. By eating whole antibiotics, usually for one week, will eliminate the infection.

After treatment, you will be tested again to make sure the infection is gone. If the infection has not gone well, you will be treated again with different kinds of antibiotics. Examination of urine culture should be performed at regular intervals during pregnancy to make sure you do not have an infection. If bacteriuria recurred, you will be treated again and may need to continue taking low-dose antibiotics for the remaining time of pregnancy to prevent recurrence.

If you experience urinary tract infections during pregnancy, the same treatment, even if you are given oral antibiotics for a shorter time. Antibiotics will cure the symptoms within a few days, but you still have to spend all drugs that doctors give to eradicate all bacteria in the urinary tract. You will be tested after treatment and periodically thereafter (also when symptoms come back) and re-treated if necessary. If you are suffering from a urinary tract infection, you need to take daily low-dose antibiotics as a precaution.

Preventing Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy

Perform the following steps to minimize your chances of getting a urinary tract infection:
  • Do not ignore the urge to urinate. Try clearing your overall bladder when you urinate.
  • Drink lots of water, at least 8 glasses of water every day.
  • After a bowel movement, wipe yourself from front to back to prevent bacteria in the dirt approaching the urethra.
  • Keep the genital area with mild soap and water formula.
  • Avoid cleaning products and soaps feminine area weight formula that can cause irritation of the urethra and your genital area.
  • Clean the genital area and micturition before and after intercourse.

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy: Identify Causes, Risks, and Handling

Research shows the number of cases of gestational diabetes is increasing. Although the diagnosis of gestational diabetes was initially frightening, pregnancy complications often occur. With careful supervision and treatment, these health problems can be overcome and your pregnancy stays safe and healthy.

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes usually occurs between 24 to 28 weeks gestation. Gestational diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that helps convert sugar into energy) to handle the increased flow of glucose or sugar in the blood to help the fetus grow. Gestational diabetes occurs in 1 out of 10 pregnant women, more common in obese women.

Despite possible complications from gestational diabetes are serious untreated, this condition is easily remedied during diagnosed early and well controlled. Therefore it is necessary to find out the cause, who is most at risk, and what can be done so that the mother and baby stay healthy.

Causes of Gestational Diabetes

In some women, the hormone insulin clogging of the placenta. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the body's metabolism of fat and carbohydrates and helps the body convert sugar into energy. When insulin can not do its job, the glucose level is high. This causes hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), which can damage nerves, blood vessels, and organs in the body. Although researchers continue to conduct research on gestational diabetes, it is still not known why some women develop gestational diabetes while others do not.

Gestational Diabetes Symptoms

Most people with gestational diabetes have no symptoms, although there were experienced:
  • Frequent urination and a lot of (different from urinating frequently but in small amounts that occur in early pregnancy).
  • Incredible thirst.
  • Tired, which is difficult to distinguish from normal fatigue in pregnancy.
  • Snoring, although the pregnancy hormones cause a blockage in the nose that makes you more snoring than usual either with or without gestational diabetes. Tell your doctor if you snore more than usual.

Who is At Risk Experiencing Gestational Diabetes

The study showed an increased risk of gestational diabetes if:
  • There is a history of gestational diabetes. If you have experienced gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, research shows you are more at risk to getting back in the next pregnancy.
  • Age. Doctors refer to women aged over 35 years have a much greater risk of having gestational diabetes.
  • Overweight (body mass index exceeding 30) when entering the pregnancy so the most common risk factor for gestational diabetes because excess weight affects the ability of insulin to keep blood sugar levels stable.
  • A higher level of abdominal fat. Recent research found that women who had high levels of abdominal fat in the first trimester of pregnancy more at risk of gestational diabetes later.
  • Have a family history. If there is a family history, you are more at risk of having gestational diabetes.
  • There was the initial diagnosis of diabetes. When blood sugar levels rise before you get pregnant, your risk of gestational diabetes.
  • You are required bed rest. Some studies show because you are not active during bed rest, you are more likely to gain weight and therefore more at risk of having gestational diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes Complications

With proper treatment and regular monitoring by a doctor, gestational diabetes can be overcome and you can have a healthy pregnancy. But if left untreated gestational diabetes, excess sugar will flow into the blood and into the baby's bloodstream through the placenta, causing you and baby at risk for serious complications.

The baby of women with gestational diabetes are more at risk of uncontrolled growing too large, called macrosomia, making birth more difficult and allow for a cesarean section. Born with a large size can also lead to high blood sugar levels in the baby at birth and obesity later.

Women with gestational diabetes are also at risk for preeclampsia (hypertension caused by pregnancy), which can lead to other problems in babies after birth include jaundice, difficulty breathing, and low blood sugar levels. Later, preeclampsia can also make the baby more at risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes Treatment

All potential risks associated with diabetes in pregnancy can be treated by controlling blood sugar levels. If you are diagnosed with gestational diabetes, doctors recommend the following:
  • Consult with a dietitian. He can help you discuss healthy food choices and meal planning.
  • Keep an eye on your blood sugar levels several times a day. First check in the morning and one hour after each meal to make sure your blood sugar in a healthy range. Buy gauges diabetes, the form of needles for fingers and inserted into a machine that reads blood sugar. It's become the most accurate way to determine how the body processes a variety of foods.
  • Moving on. Walking or stair climbing after meals to lower glucose levels.
  • Each time you finish eating, write everything you eat and the amount of blood glucose. It helps you better understand what makes the food spike glucose levels so that you can avoid it.

A healthy diet and active exercise are usually enough to control gestational diabetes, but otherwise, the doctor may suggest you take supplements of insulin to control it. These supplements can be given by injection. Oral medications glyburide (a diabetes drug that helps the pancreas to produce insulin) are often prescribed for gestational diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes Prevention

When the risk only for gestational diabetes is a family history or age increases, there's nothing you can do to prevent the possibility of having this condition. But if you are overweight, do not eat a balanced diet or not exercise regularly, start doing some healthy habits to overcome. The following points can have a big effect on the reduction in both the risk of gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes before and during pregnancy:
  • Live a healthy diet. Making changes to your diet today not only protect you and your baby during pregnancy but also eating habits better. Try to consume a variety of fruit and vegetables, limit fat intake to 30 percent of total daily calories, and avoid sugary foods.
  • Active exercise. Do exercise under medical supervision. Although the only walk for 15 minutes after lunch and dinner, make the body burn glucose even without regular insulin produced by the body. It's become a great way to keep your blood sugar.
  • Supervise weight. With the help of a doctor, try to keep your weight and body mass index remained normal. Target the right weight during pregnancy.

Blood Test For Knowing Rh Status During Pregnancy

In early pregnancy, you will undergo a blood test to determine blood type and Rh status, the type of protein found on the surface of red blood cells. People with Rh factor will have a positive Rh status. If you do not have Rh status, meaning you are Rh negative and you need to take certain precautionary measures so that your condition is not harmful to the fetus during pregnancy.

Blood Test For Knowing Rh Status During Pregnancy

If you are Rh negative, chances are your blood does not match the baby's blood is Rh-positive. Rh unequal will not harm the baby or you during the first pregnancy. But if your baby's blood to leak, the immune system will begin to produce antibodies against the Rh-positive blood. If this happens, you will experience a condition called Rh-sensitized, and in a subsequent pregnancy, if your baby is Rh positive, these antibodies will attack your blood.

Read also: Don't Forget Calcium While Pregnant! Here's Good Source of Calcium

Importance of Rh Immune Globulin for Pregnant Women With Rh Negative

Rh-sensitized you can avoid by getting an injection of Rh immune globulin blood when you are exposed to the blood of baby. If you are Rh negative and has previously been pregnant but did not receive these injections, a prenatal blood test can detect whether your body is producing antibodies that attack the Rh-positive blood.

Rh immune globulin injections would be futile if it turns out your body has produced antibodies. And if your baby is Rh positive, it is likely to have problems with his health. If the antibodies in your body have not yet formed, injection of immune globulin can keep the baby's condition under control.

How Big Possible Rh Baby And Mother Does Not Equal?

If your partner is Rh positive, 70 percent chances of your baby are also Rh-positive. So if you are Rh negative, meaning you and the baby is Rh unequal.

Giving injections of Rh immune globulin does not pose a risk of harm. If your husband is Rh negative, your baby is also Rh negative, and you do not need the injections. But when the father has Rh-positive or you do not know Rh that he had, you would not know the baby's Rh status until the baby is born unless you undergo amniocentesis, which tests to check the fetal cells from the amniotic fluid in the womb. Do not worry if you and your spouse are Rh negative, because your child will definitely have a negative Rh too.

Baby's Blood Mixed With Mother's Blood

During pregnancy, the baby's blood separately with your blood and very little blood cells that cross the placenta. Your blood may not be mixed with the blood of baby up to the time of delivery to arrive. That is why the Rh incompatibility usually does not cause problems in the first pregnancy. If your blood is not mixed until the time of delivery occurs, the baby will be born before your immune system to produce antibodies that could endanger your child.

You still need to receive an injection of Rh immune globulin after birth, only if the baby is the Rh-positive note. When you are exposed to Rh-positive blood during childbirth, these injections will prevent the body to produce antibodies that can attack the baby's blood is Rh-positive in subsequent pregnancies.

Pregnant women with Rh negative produce antibodies against Rh-positive baby during the third trimester, so you will also be given an injection of Rh immune globulin at 28 weeks gestation. The injections will be given after you undergo invasive procedures, such as amniocentesis, chronic villus sampling, or if you have a miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy, stillbirth, vaginal bleeding, or there is a wound in the abdomen during pregnancy. When you are in one of these conditions, you need to immediately receive an injection within 72 hours.

An injection of Rh immune globulin contains antibodies in small doses. These antibodies kill the Rh-positive blood cells of your body systems, to prevent the formation of antibodies by themselves. In order to work with the maximum, you should receive an injection of no more than 72 hours after exposure to the baby's blood. Protection of these injections will last up to 12 weeks. But when there is more baby's blood mixed with your blood, you will need a second injection. Injections will be given through the muscles of the arm or buttocks. Side effects that may occur are swelling at the injection area and mild fever.

What Happens to Baby If Your Body Produce Antibodies

Your body will produce antibodies if you got prenatal care and are given Rh immune globulin. If not addressed,  50 percent chance you develop these antibodies and are at Rh sensitized condition even before you go through pregnancy with Rh incompatible with your baby.

Be careful, your baby will be Rh disease if you do not receive injections and experiencing Rh-sensitized or when the next baby is Rh positive. Your antibodies will cross the placenta and attack the Rh factor on a baby that has Rh-positive, destroying red blood cells and cause anemia. This disease can cause a variety of problems ranging from jaundice to brain damage, can also miscarriage or stillbirth.

Once you experience Rh-sensitized, the antibodies will persist in the body and produce more, so the higher the risk of Rh disease in subsequent pregnancies. However, doctors have found a way to save the baby has Rh disease. Your doctor will monitor your antibody levels and evaluate the condition of the baby during pregnancy to see if he is suffering from this disease. The condition of the baby's blood cells can be checked by using Doppler ultrasound or amniocentesis.

If the baby's condition is good, you can continue the pregnancy without complications. After birth, the baby will be given a transfusion to replace the Rh positive red blood cells with healthy cells Rh negative. This will stabilize the level of red blood cells and minimize damage caused by circulating antibodies in the bloodstream. Over time, Rh-negative blood cells will die, all baby's blood cells will be Rh positive turn back, and antibodies that attack will be lost.

8 Ways To Keep Feeling Beautiful While Pregnant

Pregnancy can make you have mixed feelings. Although there is a sense of happiness thanks to their new life inside of you, the changes in the body widening can make you feel strange and beautiful. When breasts started to grow, waistline disappears, and as if swollen belly, you will definitely miss your pre-pregnancy body shape.

Ways To Keep Feeling Beautiful While Pregnant

Calm yourself, is actually the most frustrating time during pregnancy is when the stomach began to bulge but you do not look pregnant. This condition can become more difficult for pregnant women with a great body who need more time to look pregnant. Hold until the second trimester, people say at this time all the easier. Well, for you who began to worry about appearances during pregnancy, let's consider the following tips to help keep you feeling beautiful when pregnant.

Read also: Want a Healthy Pregnancy? Follow the Steps Below

1. Surprise Fun During Pregnancy

A small thing we can experience during pregnancy is the treatment of people who are becoming more courteous towards pregnant women. Suddenly, they volunteered to help when we bother with shopping bags. They held the door open so that we could enter. There just are on the bench on the train or bus. And all the friendly smiles at you. Enjoy all of it as it happens, because of the pleasure associated with pregnancy can only last a few months.

Some other things you also naturally during pregnancy, among others:
  • Nails grow quickly. Usually, in the fourth month of pregnancy, your nails begin to grow more quickly than usual. Pregnancy hormones are to blame.
  • Head hair becomes fertile. During the second trimester, your hair looks full and healthy. Actually, there is no new hair is growing, thanks to pregnancy hormones, hair loss you so much reduced.
  • Become more visible "glowing". During the second trimester, your skin looks brighter than usual. Hormonal changes are still considered to be the cause. But actually, this is due to an increase in blood volume which results in more blood flows to the skin, giving the impression of a bright and shining.
  • Part breasts enlarged. Generally, the cup size will increase to twice during pregnancy.
  • Spouse more passionate. Believe it or not, most husbands liked his wife's body shape during pregnancy. The men tend to look at the sensuality of enlarged breasts.

2. Show the Best Appearance of You

Even if you do not feel those things above specials during pregnancy, you can do the following strategy to look beautiful:
  • Highlight the positive things about yourself. If your feet look beautiful, show by using short dress. Have arms like Madonna? Showcase with a sleeveless shirt. Proud of the line of your neck? Wear tops with a wide neck.
  • Keep your weight in the suggested range. Pregnant women with normal body weight will increase 11-13 kg during pregnancy. Usually, you just add weight a few kilos in the first trimester and approximately ½ kg every week during pregnancy.
  • Every now and pamper yourself. Perform maintenance manicure, pedicure, buy a new lipstick or underwear that you prefer.

There are several ways to make yourself feel look beautiful during pregnancy:
  • Exercising. Exercise regularly during pregnancy can strengthen the lower body and also helps relieve stress. You'll feel better in terms of appearance. Exercise also helps you more easily to return to its original shape after childbirth.
  • Mantra to myself, this is something that is said to be the power of positive thinking. It might sound silly, but say to yourself, "My mother is sexy" and you'll start to believe it.
  • Do massage pregnant. Touch can heal and soothe the body and make you feel comfortable. Do massage pregnant during pregnancy. You'll feel pampered and feel happier.
  • Selectively choose comment. You will hear a lot of comments from co-workers or strangers about your bulging tummy and shape your body that makes you not happy to hear it. Filter the comments you hear, select only positive comments and you can receive, and discard the rest.

3. Do not underestimate the Power of Make-Up

Make-up can create magic during pregnancy. Make-up can be used as a tool to look beautiful. It is important during pregnancy, especially when many pregnant women feel the loss of control over their bodies. So please use make-up and have fun. You can try the eye shadow with a new color, for example. Besides make-up can be cleaned, nature is not permanent. This way is worth a try to give you a touch of pretty fast.

4. Do Beauty Care

Mani-pedi or facial can improve morale and bring radiance yourself. Come to the salon that provides massages for pregnant women. There's nothing he likes better than a massage by someone else and feels like a queen for one or two hours. If you do not have the budget to come to the salon, do the treatment at home, or invite some friends to take care of the body.

5. Fashionable During Pregnancy, Why Not?

Nowadays a lot of available maternity clothes can make you look fashionable during pregnancy. With so many choices, it will not be difficult to find a suitable match your style. One clue that can help, use the black color, this color is suitable to be worn in a variety of situations, including for mothers. Add a little accent on the base color with bright colors jewelry, silk scarf bright colors, or with a combination of a cardigan.

6. Do not Forget to Taking Care of Skin

Pregnancy hormones also affect your skin condition. You can look beautiful and radiant, but it can also make your skin drier than usual and appeared blotches. A good moisturizer can help treat your skin dry, including in the abdomen.

The best thing to prevent itching when the stomach began to swell is to maintain moisture. You might want to try the cream of the stomach, which works to prevent the onset of stretch marks. Although many experts say these products do not work, many mothers who recognize the efficacy of the cream.

7. Do Not Hurry Change Hair Style

Some pregnant women feel the texture of their hair changed and become more shining. If you already have thick hair and fear can not be set, you can choose a short haircut to be more easily managed during pregnancy. But these changes do not need to be permanently and drastically. Do not do drastic changes. If you want to change your hairstyle, hair stylist consults with you in order to get the appropriate haircut. You can use hair accessories such as pins or headbands, but do not overuse, a little is enough.

8. Give Suggestion Positive In Yourself

If all fails, remind yourself that even if you can no longer use a sleek dress or your favorite jeans today, you are still beautiful. Beauty is elegance, not only pegged to the appearance, size, or weight. You shine, you're pregnant, and you're pretty.

Required Items at the Hospital Bag There For Maternity Hospital

One should be prepared in the third trimester is the Hospital Bag. It contains all the supplies you and the baby for a few days in the hospital. When setting it up, you may need two bags of hospital bag. One bag for all your needs during labor and one bag else do you need after giving birth. It would be better if you are ready when the gestational age of 8 months because you could undergo childbirth at any time during a few weeks before the expected date of birth.

Required Items at the Hospital Bag There For Maternity Hospital

To help prepare your hospital bag, here's a list of goods that need to be taken later. This is all the recommendations of the mothers who have passed through this period. May be useful for you!

For Childbirth:

  • Identity cards can be a card or driver's license, insurance card and hospital documents you need.
  • Glasses, if you use it. Even if you normally wear contact lenses, Mother certainly would not want to be bothered to use it at the hospital.
  • Kimono bathrobes, nightgowns, slippers, socks. Some hospitals provide clothes and socks to use during labor and afterward, but the majority of pregnant women prefer to wear their own. Choose clothes that are loose and comfortable. You can choose a sleeveless or short-sleeved, loose-fitting clothing will help you when blood tests. Slippers and bathrobes make sure it can be used when you want to walk in the hospital hallway while waiting for delivery.
  • All objects that can make you relax. For example, my own pillow (use patterned or colored pillowcases different hospital pillow in order to distinguish), music, or photos of people you love. If you were induced, do not forget to bring a magazine or book to read because you may be quite a long wait until labor begins.

For husbands:

  • A camera or a video camera along with a battery, charger, and memory cards. There should be documenting this precious moment. Some hospitals do not allow to record the birth, but usually, there are no rules for recording the birth process or after birth. If you plan to use mobile phones to take pictures or video, make sure the battery is fully charged, and take the charger too. Not all hospitals allow you to charge the phone in the delivery room, so you need to bring power bank or find another way to charge a documentation tool.
  • Toiletries.Shoes and some comfortable clothes.
  • Snacks and reading material.
  • Cash or credit card for parking and small buy food or drinks.
  • Bathrobes. If you are planning a shower while waiting for delivery, you may want to father go into the bathroom to simply accompany or rub your back.

After giving birth:

  • Clean clothes, if you choose to wear one's own clothes and not have a hospital.
  • Mobile phone and charger. After the baby is born, you or your partner would want to contact family and friends to tell the birth of the child. Bring a list of names of people who would you call that nothing was forgotten.
  • Snacks. After hours of labor, you may feel hungry, and it could be you do not really like hospital food. So just bring own snacks, can include biscuits, fruit, or whatever you like.
  • Toiletries. Pack some personal items, such as toothbrushes and toothpaste, lip balm, body deodorant, combs, powder, hair clips or headbands. Hospitals typically provide soap and shampoo, but maybe you want to wear your own.
  • Nursing bra or a regular bra comfortable. Breastfeeding or not, your breasts will swell when milk comes out. And this can happen at any time during the first few days after birth. A good bra can make you comfortable and bra pads can be used to absorb leaking milk.
  • Some maternity panties. Some women choose to wear clothing that is available in the hospital, but some are not. Hospitals typically provide pads because you will experience postpartum after giving birth. Also, make sure you have a supply of sanitary napkins at home.
  • Book how to care for the baby. The hospital may provide this book, but perhaps you'd rather read a book of their own. Of the nurses are ready to answer your questions and show you how to change my clothes, carrying, breastfeeding, and bathing the baby if you need help.
  • Photos of your kids to another. Given the photo, when they come to visit, they will know you do not forget them.
  • Notebook and stationery. Make a note of your baby breastfeeding session, write a question you have, create streaks on the advice of doctors, also write the things that happened on the first day of the birth of your baby.
  • Clothes to go home. Bring clothing that is easy to use because you will still look like a pregnant woman 5 or 6 months after delivery, and use a pair of footwear that is flat and comfortable.

For babies:

  • Car seat for the baby, you can not go home without it. Make sure the car seat is installed properly and place your baby safely in it.
  • Clothes to go home. Babies need clothes to go home, including socks and a hat if the air was cold. Make sure the clothes worn in the form of pants to be easily buckled in between the two legs.
  • Blankets, while in the hospital will be provided blankets to swaddle your baby, but you need to bring yourself to use when I go home. Choose a thick blanket if the weather is cold enough.

That does not need to be taken:

  • Jewelry.
  • Too much money or other valuable items.
  • Medications, including vitamins. Tell your doctor first if you need to take certain medications during the hospital stay so that the hospital can provide it.
  • Diapers, the hospital will provide diapers for the baby while in the hospital. Leave your supplies at home.
  • Breast pump, if you need to use a breast pump, the hospital can provide it.

Some Other Things:

  • When leaving the hospital, you need to bring towels and plastic bags. Enter a towel into a plastic bag and place it under your seat. That way, if your waters broke during the trip to the hospital, you do not have to bother cleaning the car when I got home.
  • Bring a change of clothes more, but because you will stay a few days in the hospital, Mother will sweat more after giving birth. So it is necessary to change clothes several times so that you feel more comfortable, especially if the relatives and friends began to come to visit.
  • Bring the cream to the nipple. For some women, it is difficult to do at first and nipple cream can do little to solve the problem on your nipples.
  • Bring snacks for the nurses. It might sound unusual, but their task has a big commitment, and it could not hurt to be closer to them by giving something. Anyway, we'll be seeing them for a few days stay in the hospital.

Conditions Will You Face After Childbirth Done

Newborns do not have the ability to control body temperature very well, so it's important to keep them warm and dry. If you are a normal delivery and the baby is in good condition, the child usually will be placed on your stomach and dried. Your baby will be covered with towels or warm blankets and given a head cover that heads too warm.

Conditions Will You Face After Childbirth Done

Read also: 4 Exercises That Can Make Childbirth Easier

Importance of Skin To Skin After Baby Born

Skin contact with the skin helps keep your baby warm and you both can begin to establish a bond. Do not worry if you can not directly carrying your baby for either of you need medical care, there will be plenty of time to do it later anyway. During the process of birth, your doctor will probably suck the baby's mouth and nose. If your baby still has too much fluid in the mouth or nose, the doctor can perform suctioning back.

Baby Umbilical Cord Cutting Process

The doctor will cut the umbilical cord, and then collect a tube of blood from the umbilical cord to check the baby's blood type and use it for other tests. Talk to your doctor about when the time you want to cut the umbilical cord. Many doctors in the US who cut the umbilical cord immediately after birth. But recent research has shown if wait a few minutes before cutting the umbilical cord, the blood may be more flow from the placenta to the baby. This can reduce the risk of neonatal anemia and iron deficiency in infancy.

When you are within walking distance of the baby, the doctor will observe to make sure the baby is in good condition. At 1 to 5 minutes after birth, Apgar assessment will be conducted to evaluate the baby's heartbeat, breath, muscle tone, reflexes, and response. If your baby is fine, you and your baby need not be separated. The doctor can perform a simple assessment when the baby is on the top of your stomach.

Breastfeeding After Baby Born

The right time to start feeding as soon as possible after the baby is born. Even recommended for infants who are old enough and healthy for immediate skin to skin contact with the mother after birth through breastfeeding process is first completed. No need to panic if your baby looks are having trouble finding your nipples. Initially, he may just lick your nipple. Most babies are slowly beginning breastfeeding within the first hour.

Do not be embarrassed to ask for help the doctor or nurse when you are still in the delivery room. Later, when you are brought to the postpartum unit, there will be a lactation consultant to provide direction on breastfeeding.

Observation Extras for Newborns

If your baby has problems at birth that require extra observation, the baby will be dried and the doctor will cut the umbilical cord. Infants were then placed in a heated tool babies. Your baby does not need to wear because, in such a device, he will not feel cold. This is done so that the medical team can freely take the necessary steps to help make the transition to life outside the womb.

If your baby still requires further treatment after being in a stable condition, he could be taken to intensive care for babies and children. But if the conditions are right and no longer needs help, he will be swaddled in a warm blanket and handed over to you to be picked up and fed.

Situation After Caesarean section

When you live birth by caesarean section, the baby will be treated by a doctor or nurse immediately after birth and the baby was taken to a heated tool. He will be drained, mouth and nose to be inhaled, and Apgar assessment was done, and he will receive the necessary treatment. In many hospitals, if the baby is in good condition, he will be swaddled in a warm blanket and brought to your partner, who will sit on your side. Couples can hold your baby when you stitched the wound, and you can kiss the baby while still in the operating room. After the baby is going to come with you to the recovery room. If you plan to breastfeed, this is a great time to start.

Performed Neonatal Nurses

Sister will embed a badge on your baby, and your partner a few minutes after birth and before take you and the baby out of the room. He will also take your baby's footprints. Most hospitals routinely make two copies of footprints baby, one for the archives to the hospital and another one for you. Tell the nurse if the hospital did not do this but you want it.

Sister will put ointment or drops in the baby's eyes immediately after birth, but it could be after one hour so you have the opportunity to breastfeed. Ointments or drops required to prevent eye infection that can cause blindness. The infection is caused by various bacteria were exposed to babies before or during birth, including gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sister will weigh the baby and gave him an injection of vitamin K to help blood clot baby. He will also measure body length and head circumference of the child.

Once the baby's temperature is stable for a few hours, the nurse will bathe in a way to wipe and wash her hair if needed. You can ask the baby is washed and then placed in the room with you with the enclosed blankets to keep them warm. Some mothers choose a baby is in a special room baby so they could rest. But there is also a mother who would not separate even for a moment, including during the examination. Be sure to tell your wish on the hospital staff.

Tests for Newborns

When the baby is aged 48 hours, a few drops of blood will be taken from the heel to test for phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism, and other abnormalities. If you and your baby leave the hospital within 24 hours after delivery, you will be asked to come back a week later to perform the required tests. When you give birth at home, ask the doctor to take care of this test. Your baby's doctor can perform tests at the place of practice or you need to take the baby to a hospital or health clinic nearby. The test procedure is best done in the second or third day, and no more than 7 days.

Most babies undergo a hearing test before leaving the hospital. If you give birth at home, create a schedule so that your baby's hearing tested shortly after birth, and before the age of one month. If your HIV status is unknown, the baby's umbilical blood will be tested for the presence of the virus.

Your baby will also receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine before leaving the hospital. If you are a carrier of hepatitis B or status is unknown, your baby should be vaccinated within 12 hours after birth. Infants of mothers who are known carriers of hepatitis B also received an injection of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), which provide short-term protection, within 12 hours after birth. If your hepatitis B status is unknown, your blood will be tested, and if the result is positive, the infant should receive HBIG dose as soon as possible.